Withdrawal Agreement Ireland Protocol
Negotiations between civil servants resulted in a draft agreement that was to be finalised at a meeting between Jean-Claude Juncker and Theresa May on 4 December 2017 in Brussels. There has been progress in financial settlement and civil rights, but the meeting was interrupted after the Northern Ireland Democratic Unionist Party opposed agreements for the Irish border.  On 29 March 2017, Prime Minister Theresa May launched the two-year Brexit negotiation process, with a deadline set for Article 50 of the EU Treaty.  In response, the other EU countries (EU-27) published their „phased“ negotiating strategy, which postponed all negotiations on future relations with the UK (non-binding „political declaration“) until a mandatory withdrawal agreement was reached: the Republic of Ireland has the second highest gross domestic product per capita in the EU after Luxembourg , thanks to a favourable corporate tax system. and its accession to the European single market.  About 85% of Ireland`s freight exports worldwide are from ports in the UK, about half of which are destined for the UK, while half continue to the EU via Dover and Calais.  The UK`s use as a „land bridge“ is rapid (it takes 10.5 hours for the Dublin-Holyhead-Dover-Calais route), but could be compromised by customs checks in Wales and Calais in a Brexit without agreement. Indeed, in the absence of trade agreements, the trade relationship between the United Kingdom and the EU (including the Republic) would amount to membership of the World Trade Organization (WTO). They stipulate that the same tariffs and tariffs must be applied indiscriminately among all WTO members (the most favoured nation`s criterion), unless some members have a trade agreement.  This principle would also apply to trade across land borders in Ireland in the absence of a trade agreement.
In the following months, the British Parliament refused three times to ratify the agreement. In July 2019, Boris Johnson became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and leader of the Conservative Party. On 28 August 2019, the Johnson government refused to negotiate with Brussels unless the backstop was abolished, which the EU did not say.  After the vote, Michel Barnier said that the „backstop“ was „part and package“ of the UK`s Brexit agreement and would not be renegotiated.  The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the Irish Backstop, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement outlining provisions to avoid a hard border in Ireland after the UK`s withdrawal from the European Union. The protocol provided for a provision of the safety net to deal with the circumstances in which satisfactory alternative arrangements were to come into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol that will be described as follows. On 14 November 2018, after a five-hour cabinet meeting, Prime Minister May announced that her cabinet had approved a draft withdrawal agreement with the EU.    On the same day, the Government issued an opinion on the agreement on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and stated that negotiations on future relations between the United Kingdom and the EU were under way and that the (binding) withdrawal agreement would not be signed without a (non-binding) political declaration on future relations.
, „on the basis that nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.“  On the European Union side, the European Parliament also approved the ratification of the agreement on 29 January 2020 and the Council of the European Union approved the conclusion of the agreement by e-mail on 30 January 2020.  That is why, on 30 January 2020, the European Union also tabled its instrument for ratifying the agreement, concluding the agreement and allowing it to enter into force on the date of the UK`s withdrawal from the EU at 11 .m.